Statistics & The Basics

Statistics, how To, Why To?

Statistics and Information Gathering

Easy To Study Guides

Statistics The Basics (A Summary)
a) Primary data –      Primary data is collected at source for specific purposes, this can include favourite dinner or sweet collected via a questionnaire, this method can be costly but is the most effective way of information collection.
b) Secondary -          Secondary data is supporting data for your purpose, this can include information that was not structured for the purposes of your needs but still holds some relevance, Typically cheap to conduct or find but no control over the collection of the data.
c) Continuous -        Continuous data is data which is by definition constantly changing this been be seen when measuring rainfall or child’s feet as they are continuously changing value’s
d) Discrete -               Discrete data is information that does not change, if you were sampling biscuits being made in a factory they would be Discrete data as it would always be making the same biscuits.
e) Ordinal Data -       Is data that is structured in an order, i.e. First, Second, Third and so on. This can be used to select ranges of people or specific data in order to facilitate a streamline flow of information.
f) Qualitative data – is descriptive information, i.e. eye colour, favourite toy. These values are not numerical in nature but can still be collected in a manner which will allow patterns of information to be found between information sources or subjects

Sampling The Basics
a) Stratified sampling – With the homogeneous population being students a random sampling would be suitable, In a stratified sample, the probability of an individual being included varies according to known characteristics, such as gender, and the aim is to ensure that all sub-groups of the population that might be of relevance to the study are adequately represented
b) Systematic Sampling –   With the homogeneous population of the same item time after time on the production line only a sample would be required through the runs of the products to ensure the quality of the products through the creation processes
c) Convenience Sampling –          As the location in is a shopping centre the convenience sampling is perhaps the easiest method of sampling, because participants are selected in the most convenient way, and are often allowed to choose or volunteer to take part. Good results can be obtained, but the data set may be seriously biased because those who volunteer to take part may be different from those who choose not to.
d) Clustered Sampling - In a clustered sample, sub-groups of the population are used as the sampling unit, rather than individuals. The population is divided into sub-groups, known as clusters, and a selection of these are randomly selected to be included in the study. All members of the cluster are then included in the study, this is like the voting polls as we are seeing in relation to the independence referendum for Scotland.

Information (Statistics Gathering)
a) holds a lot of public information for analysis and this information could be found within the website.
b) Companies House contains all the information on businesses throughout the UK, all company’s files and results have to be submitted to company’s house in order for the government to keep up to date on businesses across the UK.
c) Office for National statistics holds information on pricing index’s you can see historical data as well for analysis

Types of information Gathering
a) Postal Questionnaire – I would select this method for the business as it has low cost implications and the information would not be required immediately to work from, given the ease of implementation and low cost this would be my preferred method
b) Direct Observation – This would allow absolute certainty for information collection guaranteeing quality, however there is a direct impact in assigning resources to conduct this but the accuracy of the information would be an absolute and great for the purposes required.
c) Respondants Schedule – This is where the respondents of the information gathering note their points and record the information in order to provide solid and accurate reading of information in typically the form of a dairy.
d) Interviews – This is the most effective way in order to get the information required from the candidates about the specifics of details sought by the interview, this is a primary source of information.
e) Stratified sampling – This is a method of sampling from a population, this is useful because populations vary and it can be beneficial to look at each one on an individual basis to get a complete analysis.

I hope this helps in your understanding and more to follow on Statistics soon... the joy's!

Participating & Linking Strategy, The Sun Newspaper

Participating & Linking Strategy featuring The Sun Newspaper

Can Police Scotland Market?

Easy Study Guides

The Sun
The Sun is a national newspaper which operates online as well as sells products.  The Sun offers user memberships to keep up with other companies which also operate online. 

The Sun’s website is fairly easy to use with new or big stories on their landing page.  The website also shows offers on the landing page which are easy to see and understand.

One method of audience engagement for the sun is posting often.  This keeps users interested in what’s going on with the company and encourages users to check in on the profile to see what new and what’s recently been update.  

Also allows users to go onto their social media page and catch up on what they have missed.

A second method of audience engagement for the sun is replying to user’s comments.  Companies should professionally reply to user’s comments to engage with customers and make customers feel valued.

A third method of audience engagement for the sun is asking customers to sign their petitions which the sun believes to be important.  Currently the sun is posting “Give me Shelter” which focuses on getting the government to protect women in violent relationships.

One method of linking and participation for the sun is linking their stories to their website.  This is to encourage users to go to the sun website and build traffic.  Within their website is many other options, stories, offers etc.

A second method of linking and participation for the sun is linking up with other companies to give offers, freebies and

A third method of linking and participation for the sun is linking to YouTube with many videos.  Videos are great for those who don’t like to read or who cannot read.

Participating & Linking Strategy with Police Scotland

Participating & Linking Strategy featuring Police Scotland

Can Police Scotland Market?

Easy Study Guides

Police Scotland’s website is very user friendly.  The main news is on the landing page with easy to understand menus.  

The website allows users to input a location or postcode to see news in their area which would interest the user more than news from the other side of Scotland.  

Police Scotland also offers links for changing the language of increasing the font size to ensure the website is available to as many people as possible.  There are links to facebook, twitter, pintrest, reddit, tumbler, google, linkedin, blogger and more.

One method of audience engagement for police Scotland is puzzles.  Police Scotland post puzzled to keep users interested and encourage them to come back to the page.

A second method of audience engagement for police Scotland is posting of events which are going to be attended by many people such as football and rugby games.  

With over 52000 seats in Hampden this information can be beneficial to social network users when they just happen to come across the post rather than having to go out their way to go on the police Scotland website to find out information about events.

A third method of audience engagement for police Scotland is events.  The police have posted Facebook events for Q&A sessions happening on Facebook and invited their likers to join the event.  This helps to spread the word of the event.

One method of linking and participation for police Scotland is directly posting links to other websites.  Police Scotland works closely with other organizations and occasionally posts links to their Facebook or websites.  

Websites such as traffic Scotland and travelinescotland are often mentioned.
A second method of linking and participation for police Scotland is allowing internet users to post pictures of events where police have been involved i.e. charity matches or RTC’s.

A third method of linking and participation for police Scotland is using hashtags (#) is almost every twitter post to get hashtags trending to increase the audience of each post

Nike Website, participating & Linking Strategy

Participating & Linking Strategy featuring Nike

Can Nike Just Do it?

Easy Study Guides

Nike is an American company that operates in multiple nations.  Nike was founded in 1964 by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight.  

Nike sells Athletic footwear and apparel, sports equipment and fashion clothing and footwear. Nike’s website displays offers as soon as a user enters the landing page.  

A banner is displayed to allow users to see the latest products.  The website offers links to social media accounts which can allow users to quickly see Nike’s Facebook, twitter, Instagram or YouTube channel.

One company which uses social media to connect with customers and build traffic to their website is Nike.  One method of participation and linking they use is posting status’s to link their Facebook to their website with “shop now” call to action button.  

This allows users to click the button and take them straight to the company’s website.  These are beneficial as most users would not want to search for Nike to get to their website but a one click call to action button is convenient.

A second method of linking and participation Nike use is Nike+ Support; this is a support service with FAQ’s and discussions etc. on their Facebook page to ensure customers have easy access to help.  This is beneficial for Nike as it improves their customer confidence.  Customers would rather not troll the internet to get the answers they are looking for but would like to find them easily.

A third method of linking and participation used by Nike is linking their face book easily to Instagram.  Nike uses their top menu bar to link to Facebook.  This is easy for internet users to go between the two sites and read reviews, see if there is any difference between posts or competitions. 

As Instagram is mainly photo sharing this can be beneficial to see more Nike products, adverts and promotions.

 One method of audience engagement used by Nike is Retweets.  Nike will retweet someone’s tweet on twitter they feel is beneficial to the company.  This encourages Nikes followers to post tweets relevant to Nike to gain a retweet.

A second method used by Nike is posting stories and history; this is beneficial as it gives customers something to relate to.  Customers may think “My granddad ran in that race, there trainers are like his” and proceed to buy the trainers.  This also shows Nike isn’t all about profit.  They engage the audience by posting relatable, heart-warming stories.

A third method of audience engagement is NIKEiD.  This allows you to create your own custom Nike products.  This helps Nike to generate higher profits.  Customers will buy custom products so they can have unique products and no one else can have them making them desired.

Threats to Computer Systems

Protecting your computer system

Theft & Viruses 

Protecting your assests

Threats to Security of Networked Information


To ensure the computers are secure and will remain safely within Ice Queen measures have to be taken by the business in order to limit access to people who might have malicious intent.

This can be done by installing locks on the doors and perhaps having a key card entry system that way you can ensure the people around the computers are staff members.

We also would need to have some security measures in place for the premises which could be and alarm system for the outside of the building and/or CCTV recording equipment, with each step we reduce the risk to the business of our equipment being stolen.

Computer Viruses

Viruses are downloaded online via the internet, some of the documents online can have malicious and want to destroy or disable the computer’s ability to function.

A virus is basically a program like any other it could be excel in the Microsoft office program or it could be call of duty on Playstation, it’s simply a set of procedures which are designed to get your computer to do something it does not usually do.

There is a whole host of types of viruses some being the Marco Virus (Found in Emails which can harm the computer) and the Parasitic virus (this can run at the same time as your operating system deleting files from the hard drive or replicating) each different virus has a specific function and usually do not have the best intentions.

Always use caution to protect the systems you use from downloading email attachments to keeping the door locked and closed from the public, Good Luck and remain Vigilant.

Defining Data Communication Systems

LAN, WAN & Internet

Types of communication systems

Network systems

Data Communication Systems


A Local Area Network (LAN) is a system whereby one grouping or one building is connected together via a single connection, these computers cannot speak to a computer outside the network and are limited to a geographical area.


Wide Area Networks (WAN) cover large geographical areas while it is similar in a lot of ways to the internet being able to cover large distances however the computers still are networked together.


Internet Service Providers (ISP, NSP) use more commonly telephone lines to connect the computers through the internet, this is done by connecting to the Network Service Provider which usually works in conjunction with companies like Sky, Virgin Media, BT (ISP’s).

Defining A Milestone

Definition of a Milestone

What is a milestone

Milestones in Business Projects

Milestones (Defined)

A Milestone marks any task with a value of zero or a value of yes in the milestone field, this marks events which can be at the end of the phase of a project or it could be down to at what times reports should be released.

Milestones are the stepping stones to completion and they can be used for a variety of functions typically we see this at phases/stages of a projects to which there are set conditions which have to be met, Upon those tasks being completed a milestone is reached which allows another stage to commence in order to complete the overall project.